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Thalassemia, Hematological-Disorder, Boiled cancer aplastic, anaemia


Thalassemia is an inherited disorder of haemoglobin (Hb) synthesis. The clinical severity varies widely, ranging from asymptomatic forms to severe or even fatal entities.

For every characteristic, there is one gene which is inherited from the father and the other gene which is inherited from the mother. One of these pairs of genes determine the production of haemoglobin, which carries oxygen and gives blood the red colour. The haemoglobin is made up of two alpha globin chains and two beta globin chains with a haem particle in the middle.

BETA THALASSEMIA MINOR: If one of the genes responsible for the production of beta globin is defective it produces beta-thalassemia trait, also called beta-thalassemia minor. As this is asymptomatic it remains unrecognized in a family for a number of generations. Individuals with the Beta Thalassemia trait are normal healthy people, leading a normal active life.

BETA THALASSEMIA MAJOR: When a beta thalassemia trait (in whom only one gene is defective) marries another beta thalassemia trait then a child can be born with two defective genes for the production of beta globin chains.

BETA THALASSEMIA INTERMEDIA: It is a condition intermediate between the major and minor forms. Affected individuals can often manage a normal life but may need occasional transfusions e.g. at times of illness or pregnancy, depending on the severity of their anemia in combination with other Hemoglobinopathie.

Thalassemia, Hematological-Disorder, Boiled cancer aplastic, anaemia

There are millions of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the circulation of healthy persons, and their level may increase in a variety of pathologies. EVs may be divided into sub-groups, i.e. exosomes, micro-particles, and apoptotic bodies, which are shed from both normal and malignant cells upon cell activation or apoptosis. Extracellular vesicles promote clot formation, mediate pro-inflammatory processes, facilitate cell-to-cell interactions, transfer proteins and miRNA to cells, and induce cell signaling (Figure 1). This paper will review earlier studies which focus on the role of EVs in hematological disorders, including hemoglobinopathies (sickle cell disease, thalassemia), paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, and hematological malignancies (lymphomas, myelomas, acute and chronic leukemias). In addition, it will review the involvement of EVs in the hypercoagulability characterizing these hematological disorders.